Contains deutsch

contains deutsch

Many translated example sentences containing "a dictionary contains" – German- English dictionary and search engine for German translations. Übersetzungen für contains im Englisch» Deutsch-Wörterbuch von PONS Online :to contain sth, a file containing a lot of important documents, try to avoid foods. Übersetzung im Kontext von „The contains“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: contains the following, the report contains, the composition contains.

German coins bear a mint mark, indicating where the coin was minted. The mint mark A was also used for German mark coins minted in Berlin beginning in following the reunification of Germany.

These mint marks have been continued on the German euro coins. Between July 1, the currency union with East Germany and July 1, , East German coins in denominations up to 50 pfennigs continued to circulate as Deutsche Mark coins at their face value, owing to a temporary shortage of small coins.

These coins were legal tender only in the territory of the former East Germany. In colloquial German the pfennig coin was sometimes called a groschen cf.

Likewise, sechser sixer could refer to a coin of 5 pfennigs. Both colloquialisms refer to several pre currencies of the previously independent states notably Prussia , where a groschen was subdivided into 12 pfennigs, hence half a groschen into 6.

After , 12 old pfennigs would be converted into 10 pfennigs of the mark, hence pfennig coins inherited the "Groschen" name and 5-pfennig coins inherited the "sechser" name.

Both usages are only regional and may not be understood in areas where a Groschen coin did not exist before In particular, the usage of "sechser" is less widespread.

A reserve series BBk II was commissioned on July 1, , consisting of 10, 20, 50 and mark banknotes. The notes were printed between and in fear if the Eastern Bloc would start systematically counterfeiting the BBk I series of banknotes to cripple the economy, then they would quickly be replaced by emergency notes.

The design of German banknotes remained unchanged during the s, s and s. During this period, forgery technology made significant advances and so, in the late s, the Bundesbank decided to issue a new series of Deutsche Mark banknotes.

Famous national artists and scientists were chosen to be portrayed on the new banknotes. Male and female artists were chosen in equal numbers.

The reverses of the notes refer to the work of the person on the obverse. The new security features were: The reason for this gradual introduction was, that public should become familiar with one single denomination, before introducing a new one.

The last three denominations were rarely seen in circulation and were introduced in one step. Furthermore, the colours were changed slightly to hamper counterfeiting.

The German name of the currency is Deutsche Mark fem. In German, the adjective "deutsche" adjective for "German" in feminine singular nominative form is capitalized because it is part of a proper name, while the noun "Mark", like all German nouns, is always capitalized.

The English loanword "Deutschmark" has a slightly different spelling and one syllable fewer possibly due to the frequency of silent e in English , and a plural form in -s.

Like Deutsche Mark , D-Mark and Mark do not take the plural in German when used with numbers like all names of units , the singular being used to refer to any amount of money e.

The subdivision unit is spelled Pfennig masc. The official form is singular. Before the switch to the euro, the Deutsche Mark was the largest international reserve currency after the United States dollar.

The percental composition of currencies of official foreign exchange reserves from to From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see DEM disambiguation.

This article is about the Deutsche mark issued by the Federal Republic of Germany. For the currency of the German Empire from to , see German gold mark.

Munich mint Hamburg mint Berlin mint Karlsruhe-Stuttgart mints. This infobox shows the latest status before this currency was rendered obsolete.

The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February , but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory.

The two governments began to normalise relations in , as part of the Brussels Agreement. Kosovo is recognized as an independent state by out of United Nations member states.

Retrieved 22 June Archived from the original on Archived from the original on 13 December Retrieved 27 April History of Modern Germany since University of California Press.

Stuttgart 48 und die soziale Marktwirtschaft, in: The Nazis initially promoted Fraktur and Schwabacher because they were considered Aryan , but they abolished them in , claiming that these letters were Jewish.

The Fraktur script however remains present in everyday life in pub signs, beer brands and other forms of advertisement, where it is used to convey a certain rusticality and antiquity.

Many Antiqua typefaces include the long s also. A specific set of rules applies for the use of long s in German text, but nowadays it is rarely used in Antiqua typesetting.

The long s only appears in lower case. The orthography reform of led to public controversy and considerable dispute. After 10 years, without any intervention by the federal parliament, a major revision was installed in , just in time for the coming school year.

In , some traditional spellings were finally invalidated, whereas in , on the other hand, many of the old comma rules were again put in force.

Traditionally, this letter was used in three situations:. In German, vowels excluding diphthongs; see below are either short or long , as follows:.

In general, the short vowels are open and the long vowels are close. Whether any particular vowel letter represents the long or short phoneme is not completely predictable, although the following regularities exist:.

Both of these rules have exceptions e. For an i that is neither in the combination ie making it long nor followed by a double consonant or cluster making it short , there is no general rule.

In some cases, there are regional differences: In central Germany Hessen , the o in the proper name "Hoffmann" is pronounced long, whereas most other Germans would pronounce it short; the same applies to the e in the geographical name " Mecklenburg " for people in that region.

With approximately 25 phonemes, the German consonant system exhibits an average number of consonants in comparison with other languages.

The consonant inventory of the standard language is shown below. German does not have any dental fricatives as English th. The th sounds, which the English language still has, disappeared on the continent in German with the consonant shifts between the 8th and the 10th centuries.

Likewise, the gh in Germanic English words, pronounced in several different ways in modern English as an f , or not at all , can often be linked to German ch: The German language is used in German literature and can be traced back to the Middle Ages , with the most notable authors of the period being Walther von der Vogelweide and Wolfram von Eschenbach.

The Nibelungenlied , whose author remains unknown, is also an important work of the epoch. The fairy tales collections collected and published by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm in the 19th century became famous throughout the world.

Reformer and theologian Martin Luther , who was the first to translate the Bible into German, is widely credited for having set the basis for the modern "High German" language.

Thirteen German-speaking people have won the Nobel Prize in literature: English has taken many loanwords from German, often without any change of spelling aside from, often, the elimination of umlauts and not capitalizing nouns:.

The government-backed Goethe-Institut [87] named after the famous German author Johann Wolfgang von Goethe aims to enhance the knowledge of German culture and language within Europe and the rest of the world.

This is done by holding exhibitions and conferences with German-related themes, and providing training and guidance in the learning and use of the German language.

The Dortmund-based Verein Deutsche Sprache VDS , which was founded in , supports the German language and is the largest language association of citizens in the world.

The VDS has more than thirty-five thousand members in over seventy countries. Its founder, statistics professor Dr. The German state broadcaster Deutsche Welle is the equivalent of the British BBC World Service and provides radio and television broadcasts in German and 30 other languages across the globe.

Deutsche Welle also provides an e-learning website to learn German. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Deutsch disambiguation and German disambiguation.

Not to be confused with Germanic languages. Co- Official and majority language. Co-official, but not majority language. Early New High German.

Geographical distribution of German speakers. Italy South Tyrol 0. German is official language de jure or de facto and first language of the majority of the population.

German is a co-official language, but not the first language of the majority of the population. German or a German dialect is a legally recognized minority language Squares: German or a variety of German is spoken by a sizeable minority, but has no legal recognition.

List of territorial entities where German is an official language. German language in Namibia. Brazilian German and Colonia Tovar dialect.

Grammatical gender in German. German orthography and German braille. Listen to a German speaker recite the alphabet in German.

German orthography reform of High German consonant shift. Outline of German language Deutsch disambiguation German family name etymology German toponymy Germanism linguistics List of German exonyms List of German expressions in English List of German words of French origin List of pseudo-German words adapted to English List of terms used for Germans List of territorial entities where German is an official language Names for the German language.

Die Stellung der deutschen Sprache in der Welt in German 1st ed. Retrieved 24 July Europeans and their languages" PDF report. Archived from the original PDF on 6 January Retrieved 11 October Retrieved 3 May Retrieved 7 July Retrieved 28 September Retrieved August 6, Old English and its closest relatives: An Anthology of German Literature.

Zur Geschichte der Deutschen Sprache. A history of the German language: University of Washington Press. A history of German: Geschichte der deutschen Sprache.

The Encyclopedia of Christianity. Eerdmans; Brill, —, 1: A history of the German language. University of California Libraries. The German Nation and Martin Luther.

The "Duden" and its History". Die Rolle der II. Orthographischen Konferenz in der Geschichte der deutschen Rechtschreibung.

Journal of the Simplified Spelling Society. Archived from the original on 23 September Retrieved 18 July Statista, The Statistics Portal.

Retrieved 11 July Archived from the original on 4 March Retrieved 20 June Supplement of the Allgemeine Zeitung. Archived from the original PDF on 24 June Retrieved 23 June Markedness and salience in language contact and second-language acquisition: Founding Provisions South African Government".

Retrieved 15 March Ideas viajeras y sus objetos. Contacto de lenguas en el sur de Chile". German Dialects map ". Volume 2, Reference Survey 1st ed.

Retrieved 12 June Archived from the original on 10 May Retrieved 10 May Retrieved 17 October Retrieved 21 August Walter de Gruyter, Berlin Archived from the original on 15 May The "Duden" and Its History".

The Publisher as Teacher: Retrieved 5 December It is wrong to regard or to describe the so-called Gothic script as a German script.

In reality, the so-called Gothic script consists of Schwabach Jew letters. Just as they later took control of the newspapers, upon the introduction of printing the Jews residing in Germany took control of the printing presses and thus in Germany the Schwabach Jew letters were forcefully introduced.

All printed materials are to be gradually converted to this normal script. As soon as is feasible in terms of textbooks, only the normal script will be taught in village and state schools.

The use of the Schwabach Jew letters by officials will in future cease; appointment certifications for functionaries, street signs, and so forth will in future be produced only in normal script.

Form und Geschichte der gebrochenen Schriften. Retrieved 24 January Retrieved 14 June In the second half of the 19th century Germany displaced France as the prime role model for Chile.

This however met some criticism when Eduardo de la Barra wrote disparangingly about a "German bewichment". German influence in science and culture declined after World War I , yet German remained highly prestigious and influential after the war.

The Consonants of German: The German Language in a Changing Europe. Retrieved 6 February Lay summary 6 February The Structure of German.

Retrieved 26 February Routledge Language Family Descriptions. Lay summary 26 February The survey of the Germanic branch languages includes chapters by Winfred P.

Biography of a Language. Cookies erleichtern die Bereitstellung unserer Dienste. Berries and other plant foods contain many antioxidants. The text above contains no accurate facts on the matter.

Der vorstehende Text beinhaltet keine zutreffende Darstellung des Sachverhalts. The proposal contains both technical and organisational requirements.

Der Vorschlag umfasst sowohl technische als auch organisatorische Anforderungen. This requires containment and isolation from humans and the living environment over a long period of time.

Das Material muss eingeschlossen und langfristig vom Menschen und der belebten Umwelt isoliert werden. I know you can contain more than you think you can.

Uranus has eleven known rings, which contain dark, boulder-sized particles. Der Uranus hat elf bekannte Ringe; diese bestehen aus dunklen, felsbrockenartigen Partikeln.

The art of doing mathematics consists in finding that special case which contains all the germs of generality. EM operates a fleet of 50 vessels in the container , chemical, product and LPG sectors.

Both coins were still in circulation in and supermarkets in particular still marked prices to the nearest pfennig.

This penchant for accuracy continues with the euro while Finland or the Netherlands for example, price to the nearest 5 cents with the 1-cent coin still encountered in Germany.

On 27 December , the German government enacted a law authorizing the Bundesbank to issue, in , a special. The coin had the exact design and dimensions of the circulating cupro-nickel DM 1 coin, with the exception of the inscription on the reverse, which read "Deutsche Bundesbank" instead of "Bundesrepublik Deutschland" , as the Bundesbank was the issuing authority in this case.

A total of one million gold 1-mark coins were minted , at each of the five mints and were sold beginning in mid through German coin dealers on behalf of the Bundesbank.

The issue price varied by dealer but averaged approximately United States dollars. German coins bear a mint mark, indicating where the coin was minted.

The mint mark A was also used for German mark coins minted in Berlin beginning in following the reunification of Germany.

These mint marks have been continued on the German euro coins. Between July 1, the currency union with East Germany and July 1, , East German coins in denominations up to 50 pfennigs continued to circulate as Deutsche Mark coins at their face value, owing to a temporary shortage of small coins.

These coins were legal tender only in the territory of the former East Germany. In colloquial German the pfennig coin was sometimes called a groschen cf.

Likewise, sechser sixer could refer to a coin of 5 pfennigs. Both colloquialisms refer to several pre currencies of the previously independent states notably Prussia , where a groschen was subdivided into 12 pfennigs, hence half a groschen into 6.

After , 12 old pfennigs would be converted into 10 pfennigs of the mark, hence pfennig coins inherited the "Groschen" name and 5-pfennig coins inherited the "sechser" name.

Both usages are only regional and may not be understood in areas where a Groschen coin did not exist before In particular, the usage of "sechser" is less widespread.

A reserve series BBk II was commissioned on July 1, , consisting of 10, 20, 50 and mark banknotes. The notes were printed between and in fear if the Eastern Bloc would start systematically counterfeiting the BBk I series of banknotes to cripple the economy, then they would quickly be replaced by emergency notes.

The design of German banknotes remained unchanged during the s, s and s. During this period, forgery technology made significant advances and so, in the late s, the Bundesbank decided to issue a new series of Deutsche Mark banknotes.

Famous national artists and scientists were chosen to be portrayed on the new banknotes. Male and female artists were chosen in equal numbers.

The reverses of the notes refer to the work of the person on the obverse. The new security features were: The reason for this gradual introduction was, that public should become familiar with one single denomination, before introducing a new one.

The last three denominations were rarely seen in circulation and were introduced in one step. Furthermore, the colours were changed slightly to hamper counterfeiting.

The German name of the currency is Deutsche Mark fem. In German, the adjective "deutsche" adjective for "German" in feminine singular nominative form is capitalized because it is part of a proper name, while the noun "Mark", like all German nouns, is always capitalized.

The English loanword "Deutschmark" has a slightly different spelling and one syllable fewer possibly due to the frequency of silent e in English , and a plural form in -s.

Like Deutsche Mark , D-Mark and Mark do not take the plural in German when used with numbers like all names of units , the singular being used to refer to any amount of money e.

The subdivision unit is spelled Pfennig masc. The official form is singular. Before the switch to the euro, the Deutsche Mark was the largest international reserve currency after the United States dollar.

The percental composition of currencies of official foreign exchange reserves from to From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see DEM disambiguation.

This article is about the Deutsche mark issued by the Federal Republic of Germany. For the currency of the German Empire from to , see German gold mark.

Munich mint Hamburg mint Berlin mint Karlsruhe-Stuttgart mints. This infobox shows the latest status before this currency was rendered obsolete.

The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February , but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory.

The two governments began to normalise relations in , as part of the Brussels Agreement. Kosovo is recognized as an independent state by out of United Nations member states.

Retrieved 22 June Archived from the original on Archived from the original on 13 December Retrieved 27 April History of Modern Germany since University of California Press.

Stuttgart 48 und die soziale Marktwirtschaft, in: Archived from the original on May 4, Coin and banknote collection.

Archived from the original on 8 July Retrieved 2 May Retrieved 3 January Currencies named mark or similar.

Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark konvertibilna marka, конвертибилна марка. Proposed eurobonds Reserve currency Petroeuro World currency. Andorra Monaco San Marino Vatican.

British pound sterling incl. Euro portal European Union portal Numismatics portal. Retrieved from " https: Pages using Timeline Webarchive template wayback links Articles with German-language external links Articles containing German-language text Articles containing Albanian-language text Articles containing Croatian-language text Articles containing Serbian-language text Articles with hAudio microformats Wikipedia articles needing clarification from May All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from August Wikipedia articles needing clarification from January Commons category link is on Wikidata Wikipedia articles with GND identifiers.

Views Read Edit View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. This page was last edited on 14 January , at By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

The South African constitution identifies German as a "commonly used" language and the Pan South African Language Board is obligated to promote and ensure respect for it.

In the United States, the states of North Dakota and South Dakota are the only states where German is the most common language spoken at home after English.

The impact of 19th century German immigration to southern Chile was such that Valdivia was for a while a Spanish-German bilingual city with "German signboards and placards alongside the Spanish".

In Australia , the state of South Australia experienced a pronounced wave of immigration in the s from Prussia particularly the Silesia region.

With the prolonged isolation from other German speakers and contact with Australian English , a unique dialect known as Barossa German has developed and is spoken predominantly in the Barossa Valley near Adelaide.

Usage of German sharply declined with the advent of World War I , due to the prevailing anti-German sentiment in the population and related government action.

It continued to be used as a first language into the twentieth century but now its use is limited to a few older speakers.

German migration to New Zealand in the 19th century was less pronounced than migration from Britain, Ireland, and perhaps even Scandinavia.

Despite this there were significant pockets of German-speaking communities which lasted until the first decades of the 20th century.

German-speakers settled principally in Puhoi , Nelson , and Gore. At the last census , 36, people in New Zealand spoke German, making it the third most spoken European language after English and French and overall the ninth most spoken language.

There is also an important German creole being studied and recovered, named Unserdeutsch , spoken in the former German colony of German New Guinea , across Micronesia and in northern Australia i.

The risk of its extinction is serious and efforts to revive interest in the language are being implemented by scholars.

Like French and Spanish , German has become a classic second foreign language in the western world, as English Spanish in the US is well established as the first foreign language.

Standard German originated not as a traditional dialect of a specific region but as a written language. However, there are places where the traditional regional dialects have been replaced by new vernaculars based on standard German; that is the case in large stretches of Northern Germany but also in major cities in other parts of the country.

It is important to note, however, that the colloquial standard German differs greatly from the formal written language, especially in grammar and syntax, in which it has been influenced by dialectal speech.

Standard German differs regionally between German-speaking countries in vocabulary and some instances of pronunciation and even grammar and orthography.

This variation must not be confused with the variation of local dialects. Even though the regional varieties of standard German are only somewhat influenced by the local dialects, they are very distinct.

German is thus considered a pluricentric language. In most regions, the speakers use a continuum from more dialectal varieties to more standard varieties according to circumstances.

In German linguistics , German dialects are distinguished from varieties of standard German. The varieties of standard German refer to the different local varieties of the pluricentric standard German.

They differ only slightly in lexicon and phonology. In certain regions, they have replaced the traditional German dialects, especially in Northern Germany.

Swiss Standard German is used in the Swiss education system, whereas Austrian Standard German is officially used in the Austrian education system.

A mixture of dialect and standard does not normally occur in Northern Germany either. Because their linguistic distance to it is greater, they do not mesh with Standard German the way that High German dialects such as Bavarian, Swabian, Hessian can.

German is a member of the West Germanic language of the Germanic family of languages , which in turn is part of the Indo-European language family. The German dialects are the traditional local varieties; many of them are hardly understandable to someone who knows only standard German, and they have great differences in lexicon , phonology and syntax.

If a narrow definition of language based on mutual intelligibility is used, many German dialects are considered to be separate languages for instance in the Ethnologue.

However, such a point of view is unusual in German linguistics. The variation among the German dialects is considerable, with often only neighbouring dialects being mutually intelligible.

Some dialects are not intelligible to people who know only Standard German. Middle Low German was the lingua franca of the Hanseatic League.

It was the predominant language in Northern Germany until the 16th century. In , the Luther Bible was published.

The translation is considered to be an important step towards the evolution of the Early New High German. It aimed to be understandable to a broad audience and was based mainly on Central and Upper German varieties.

The Early New High German language gained more prestige than Low German and became the language of science and literature.

Around the same time, the Hanseatic League, based around northern ports, lost its importance as new trade routes to Asia and the Americas were established, and the most powerful German states of that period were located in Middle and Southern Germany.

The 18th and 19th centuries were marked by mass education in Standard German in schools. Gradually, Low German came to be politically viewed as a mere dialect spoken by the uneducated.

Today, Low Saxon can be divided in two groups: Low Saxon varieties with a reasonable Standard German influx [ clarification needed ] and varieties of Standard German with a Low Saxon influence known as Missingsch.

Sometimes, Low Saxon and Low Franconian varieties are grouped together because both are unaffected by the High German consonant shift.

However, the proportion of the population who can understand and speak it has decreased continuously since World War II. The largest cities in the Low German area are Hamburg and Dortmund.

The Low Franconian dialects are the dialects that are more closely related to Dutch than to Low German. Most of the Low Franconian dialects are spoken in the Netherlands and in Belgium , where they are considered as dialects of Dutch, which is itself a Low Franconian language.

These dialects are more closely related to Dutch also North Low Franconian than the South Low Franconian dialects also referred to as East Limburgish and, east of the Rhine , Bergish , which are spoken in the south of the German Low Franconian language area.

The High German varieties spoken by the Ashkenazi Jews have several unique features, and are considered as a separate language, Yiddish , written with the Hebrew alphabet.

Modern Standard German is mostly based on Central German dialects. These dialects are considered as.

Luxembourgish as well as the Transylvanian Saxon dialect spoken in Transylvania are based on Moselle Franconian dialects. They consist of the East- and South Franconian dialects.

The East Franconian dialect branch is one of the most spoken dialect branches in Germany. These dialects are spoken in the region of Franconia and in the central parts of Saxon Vogtland.

The largest cities in the South Franconian area are Karlsruhe and Heilbronn. The Upper German dialects are the Alemannic dialects in the west, and the Bavarian dialects in the east.

The Alemannic dialects are considered as Alsatian in Alsace. The largest cities in the Bavarian area are Vienna and Munich.

German is a fusional language with a moderate degree of inflection , with three grammatical genders ; as such, there can be a large number of words derived from the same root.

German nouns inflect by case, gender and number:. This degree of inflection is considerably less than in Old High German and other old Indo-European languages such as Latin , Ancient Greek and Sanskrit , and it is also somewhat less than, for instance, Old English , modern Icelandic or Russian.

The three genders have collapsed in the plural. In nouns, inflection for case is required in the singular for strong masculine and neuter nouns only in the genitive only in archaic use in the dative , and even this is losing ground to substitutes in informal speech.

Weak masculine nouns share a common case ending for genitive, dative and accusative in the singular. Feminine nouns are not declined in the singular.

The plural has an inflection for the dative. In total, seven inflectional endings not counting plural markers exist in German: In German orthography, nouns and most words with the syntactical function of nouns are capitalised to make it easier for readers to determine the function of a word within a sentence Am Freitag ging ich einkaufen.

Like the other Germanic languages, German forms noun compounds in which the first noun modifies the category given by the second,: Unlike English, whose newer compounds or combinations of longer nouns are often written in "open" with separating spaces, German like some other Germanic languages nearly always uses the "closed" form without spaces, for example: Like English, German allows arbitrarily long compounds in theory see also English compounds.

However, examples like this are perceived by native speakers as excessively bureaucratic, stylistically awkward or even satirical. The meaning of basic verbs can be expanded and sometimes radically changed through the use of a number of prefixes.

Other prefixes have only the vaguest meaning in themselves; ver- is found in a number of verbs with a large variety of meanings, as in ver suchen to try from suchen to seek , ver nehmen to interrogate from nehmen to take , ver teilen to distribute from teilen to share , ver stehen to understand from stehen to stand.

Other examples include the following: Many German verbs have a separable prefix, often with an adverbial function.

In finite verb forms, it is split off and moved to the end of the clause and is hence considered by some to be a "resultative particle".

For example, mitgehen , meaning "to go along", would be split, giving Gehen Sie mit? German word order is generally with the V2 word order restriction and also with the SOV word order restriction for main clauses.

For polar questions, exclamations and wishes, the finite verb always has the first position. In subordinate clauses, the verb occurs at the very end.

German requires for a verbal element main verb or auxiliary verb to appear second in the sentence. The verb is preceded by the topic of the sentence.

The element in focus appears at the end of the sentence. For a sentence without an auxiliary, these are some possibilities:. The position of a noun in a German sentence has no bearing on its being a subject, an object or another argument.

In a declarative sentence in English, if the subject does not occur before the predicate, the sentence could well be misunderstood.

The flexible word order also allows one to use language "tools" such as poetic meter and figures of speech more freely. When an auxiliary verb is present, it appears in second position, and the main verb appears at the end.

This occurs notably in the creation of the perfect tense. Many word orders are still possible:. The main verb may appear in first position to put stress on the action itself.

The auxiliary verb is still in second position. Sentences using modal verbs place the infinitive at the end. For example, the English sentence "Should he go home?

Thus, in sentences with several subordinate or relative clauses, the infinitives are clustered at the end.

Compare the similar clustering of prepositions in the following highly contrived English sentence: German subordinate clauses have all verbs clustered at the end.

Given that auxiliaries encode future , passive , modality , and the perfect , very long chains of verbs at the end of the sentence can occur.

In these constructions, the past participle in ge- is often replaced by the infinitive. Most German vocabulary is derived from the Germanic branch of the European language family.

Latin words were already imported into the predecessor of the German language during the Roman Empire and underwent all the characteristic phonetic changes in German.

Their origin is thus no longer recognizable for most speakers e. Borrowing from Latin continued after the fall of the Roman Empire during Christianization, mediated by the church and monasteries.

Another important influx of Latin words can be observed during Renaissance humanism. In a scholarly context, the borrowings from Latin have continued until today, in the last few decades often indirectly through borrowings from English.

During the 15th to 17th centuries, the influence of Italian was great, leading to many Italian loanwords in the fields of architecture, finance, and music.

The influence of the French language in the 17th to 19th centuries resulted in an even greater import of French words.

The English influence was already present in the 19th century, but it did not become dominant until the second half of the 20th century. At the same time, the effectiveness of the German language in forming equivalents for foreign words from its inherited Germanic stem repertory is great.

The tradition of loan translation was revitalized in the 18th century, with linguists like Joachim Heinrich Campe , who introduced close to words that are still used in modern German.

Even today, there are movements that try to promote the Ersatz substitution of foreign words deemed unnecessary with German alternatives.

As in English, there are many pairs of synonyms due to the enrichment of the Germanic vocabulary with loanwords from Latin and Latinized Greek. These words often have different connotations from their Germanic counterparts and are usually perceived as more scholarly.

The size of the vocabulary of German is difficult to estimate. The modern German scientific vocabulary is estimated at nine million words and word groups based on the analysis of 35 million sentences of a corpus in Leipzig, which as of July included million words in total.

The Duden is the de facto official dictionary of the German language, first published by Konrad Duden in The Duden is updated regularly, with new editions appearing every four or five years.

As of August [update] , it is in its 27th edition and in 12 volumes, each covering different aspects such as loanwords , etymology , pronunciation , synonyms , and so forth.

The first of these volumes, Die deutsche Rechtschreibung German Orthography , has long been the prescriptive source for the spelling of German.

The Duden has become the bible of the German language, being the definitive set of rules regarding grammar, spelling and usage of German.

It is the Austrian counterpart to the German Duden and contains a number of terms unique to Austrian German or more frequently used or differently pronounced there.

The most recent edition is the 42nd from The dictionary is also officially used in the Italian province of South Tyrol.

This is a selection of cognates in both English and German. Instead of the usual infinitive ending -en German verbs are indicated by a hyphen "-" after their stems.

Words that are written with capital letters in German are nouns. German is written in the Latin alphabet. Because legibility and convenience set certain boundaries, compounds consisting of more than three or four nouns are almost exclusively found in humorous contexts.

In contrast, although English can also string nouns together, it usually separates the nouns with spaces. For example, "toilet bowl cleaner".

Some operating systems use key sequences to extend the set of possible characters to include, amongst other things, umlauts; in Microsoft Windows this is done using Alt codes.

German readers understand these transcriptions although they appear unusual , but they are avoided if the regular umlauts are available because they are a makeshift, not proper spelling.

In Westphalia and Schleswig-Holstein, city and family names exist where the extra e has a vowel lengthening effect, e. There is no general agreement on where letters with umlauts occur in the sorting sequence.

Telephone directories treat them by replacing them with the base vowel followed by an e. Some dictionaries sort each umlauted vowel as a separate letter after the base vowel, but more commonly words with umlauts are ordered immediately after the same word without umlauts.

These variants of the Latin alphabet are very different from the serif or sans-serif Antiqua typefaces used today, and the handwritten forms in particular are difficult for the untrained to read.

The printed forms, however, were claimed by some to be more readable when used for Germanic languages.

The Nazis initially promoted Fraktur and Schwabacher because they were considered Aryan , but they abolished them in , claiming that these letters were Jewish.

The Fraktur script however remains present in everyday life in pub signs, beer brands and other forms of advertisement, where it is used to convey a certain rusticality and antiquity.

Many Antiqua typefaces include the long s also. A specific set of rules applies for the use of long s in German text, but nowadays it is rarely used in Antiqua typesetting.

The long s only appears in lower case. The orthography reform of led to public controversy and considerable dispute.

After 10 years, without any intervention by the federal parliament, a major revision was installed in , just in time for the coming school year.

In , some traditional spellings were finally invalidated, whereas in , on the other hand, many of the old comma rules were again put in force.

Traditionally, this letter was used in three situations:. In German, vowels excluding diphthongs; see below are either short or long , as follows:.

In general, the short vowels are open and the long vowels are close. Whether any particular vowel letter represents the long or short phoneme is not completely predictable, although the following regularities exist:.

Both of these rules have exceptions e. For an i that is neither in the combination ie making it long nor followed by a double consonant or cluster making it short , there is no general rule.

In some cases, there are regional differences: In central Germany Hessen , the o in the proper name "Hoffmann" is pronounced long, whereas most other Germans would pronounce it short; the same applies to the e in the geographical name " Mecklenburg " for people in that region.

With approximately 25 phonemes, the German consonant system exhibits an average number of consonants in comparison with other languages.

The consonant inventory of the standard language is shown below. German does not have any dental fricatives as English th.

The th sounds, which the English language still has, disappeared on the continent in German with the consonant shifts between the 8th and the 10th centuries.

Likewise, the gh in Germanic English words, pronounced in several different ways in modern English as an f , or not at all , can often be linked to German ch: The German language is used in German literature and can be traced back to the Middle Ages , with the most notable authors of the period being Walther von der Vogelweide and Wolfram von Eschenbach.

The Nibelungenlied , whose author remains unknown, is also an important work of the epoch. The fairy tales collections collected and published by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm in the 19th century became famous throughout the world.

Reformer and theologian Martin Luther , who was the first to translate the Bible into German, is widely credited for having set the basis for the modern "High German" language.

Thirteen German-speaking people have won the Nobel Prize in literature: English has taken many loanwords from German, often without any change of spelling aside from, often, the elimination of umlauts and not capitalizing nouns:.

The government-backed Goethe-Institut [87] named after the famous German author Johann Wolfgang von Goethe aims to enhance the knowledge of German culture and language within Europe and the rest of the world.

This is done by holding exhibitions and conferences with German-related themes, and providing training and guidance in the learning and use of the German language.

The Dortmund-based Verein Deutsche Sprache VDS , which was founded in , supports the German language and is the largest language association of citizens in the world.

The VDS has more than thirty-five thousand members in over seventy countries. Its founder, statistics professor Dr.

The German state broadcaster Deutsche Welle is the equivalent of the British BBC World Service and provides radio and television broadcasts in German and 30 other languages across the globe.

Deutsche Welle also provides an e-learning website to learn German. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Deutsch disambiguation and German disambiguation.

Not to be confused with Germanic languages. Co- Official and majority language. Co-official, but not majority language. Early New High German.

Geographical distribution of German speakers. Italy South Tyrol 0. German is official language de jure or de facto and first language of the majority of the population.

German is a co-official language, but not the first language of the majority of the population. German or a German dialect is a legally recognized minority language Squares: German or a variety of German is spoken by a sizeable minority, but has no legal recognition.

List of territorial entities where German is an official language. German language in Namibia. Brazilian German and Colonia Tovar dialect.

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